The federal, provincial, and territorial  governments include policies and strategies directed towards environment and energy issues across Canada.

Federal Government Policies

Each of the sections includes the main mechanisms, policies, frameworks, actions, and initiatives that is utilized by the federal government to guide its sustainable development mandate.

Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change

This framework is a collective plan to work towards climate change goals including all provinces and territories. Here are the main pillars of the Pan-Canadian Framework:

Pricing Carbon Pollution

  • Allows for provincial and territorial flexibility in designing and developing policies to meet GHG reduction targets.
  • Addresses the federal government’s commitment to work with each province and territory to address their own circumstances regarding food security, costs of living, collaboration with Indigenous Peoples, and emerging economies.
  • Contains principles to address carbon pricing policies including introducing carbon pricing in a timely manner and increasing carbon prices with predictability.

Complementary Actions to Reduce Emissions

  • Focuses on electricity generation by increasing renewable sources of energy, providing clean power, and modernizing electricity systems
  • Provides framework for the built environment from making more energy efficient buildings and supporting energy efficient housing within Indigenous communities
  • Determines actions for the transportation sector including setting emissions standards and utilization of cleaner fuels
  • Illustrates actions to increase energy efficiency and technology investments for industries
  • Provides initiatives for forestry and agriculture from generation of bioenergy to increasing carbon storage

Adaptation and Climate Resilience

  • Promotes building regional capacity and adaptation mechanisms through transforming traditional knowledge into action
  • Determines opportunities to invest in infrastructure for climate resilience
  • Establishes actions for protection and improvement of human health related to climate change risks
  • Includes actions to increase climate resilience in Northern Canada

Clean Technology, Innovation, and Jobs

  • Supports mission-oriented research and development and early stage tech development
  • Provides initiatives to help accelerate growth and commercialization through the enhancement of skills development and innovation

Environmental & Energy Acts

Here is a brief overview of some of the federal acts in place

Environmental Protection

  • Weather Modification Information Act
    • Sets out requirements for reporting activities related to atmospheric changes influencing weather conditions
  • Water Governance and Legislation
    • Includes two main acts - the International Rivers Improvement Act (IRIA) and the Canada Water Act to protect and determine responsibilities for Canada’s coastal and inland water sources

Pollution Prevention

Biodiversity and Conservation

Sustainable Development


The Federal Sustainable Development Strategy (FSDS) identified priority areas for sustainable development planning, in which it actions to meet its goals and targets. In addition, the FSDS spans three years from 2016 to 2019.

Provincial Government Policies
A brief overview of current climate policies in each province and territory. Updated January 2018.

Provincial/Territorial Parties  


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